By understanding the scope of international marketing organisations can adapt to the unique characteristics of different markets, culture, and consumer behaviour. An international field of marketing, defined by the scope of international marketing, requires a thorough understanding of the global business environment. It provides organisations with the ability to develop effective strategies to reach and engage diverse audiences. The scope of international marketing highlights the importance of market research, consumer insights, and cultural sensitivity in creating successful international marketing campaigns.
International Marketing Meaning
International marketing also known as multinational marketing is the marketing of products or services across national boundaries. It includes activities that direct the flow of goods from one country to another to meet the requirements of the customers.
International marketing is somewhat similar to export management. However, export management involves managing the flow of goods and services from the host country to the guest country whereas, international marketing covers production, finance, and personnel activities. It also entails several post-sales activities.
It may consist of exporting goods from one country to another, or it may refer to companies that both produce and market in more than one country. International marketing is not the same thing as international trade. Only a part of the international trade flows represents international marketing.
Definition of International Marketing
According to AMA (American Marketing Association), “International marketing is the multinational process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organisational objectives”.
According to Warren J. Keegan, “International marketing is the process of focusing the resources and objectives of an organisation on global marketing opportunities and needs”.
International marketing involves:
1) Determining the needs and wants of customers in international markets,
2) Making marketing mix decisions related to product, pricing, distribution, and communication while keeping in view the diverse consumer and, market behaviour across different countries on the one hand and firms’ goals towards globalization on the other hand.
3) Expanding into international markets through various modes of entry., and
4) Making decisions given the dynamic international marketing environment.
International marketing refers to the execution performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services to people in multiple countries. It is different from domestic marketing in as much as it involves cross-border transactions, which entail different markets and consumers with varying needs, wants, and behavioural characteristics.
Related Article: Modes of Entry into International Business
Nature of International Marketing
The nature of international marketing can be understood through the following points:
- Large Scale Operations
- The dominance of Multinationals
- International Restrictions and Trading Blocks
- Sensitive Character
- Need for Marketing Research
- Importance of Advanced Technology
- Keen and Acute Competition
- Need for Specialised Institutions
- Need for Long-Term Planning
- Develops Cultural Relations and Maintains World Peace
1) Large-Scale Operations
Large-scale operations refer to extensive business activities that involve a wide range of resources, including capital, technology, manpower, and tangible assets. International marketing transaction is always conducted in large quantities, rather than on a retail basis. This approach is necessary to effectively secure the advantages of large-scale operations, particularly in terms of transportation, handling, and warehousing. It requires careful planning, efficient execution, diligent monitoring and evaluation to ensure optimal outcomes.
2) Dominance of Multinationals Corporations
Multinational companies have established their dominance in international marketing businesses. MNCs have a vast network of worldwide contacts, allowing them to conduct business operations more efficiently and economically by utilizing existing infrastructure and resources to produce goods or services for the global market. MNCs have international marketing success and they are in a better position to adopt a global approach because of their access to capital, advanced technology, and economies of scale. Multinational corporations usually market their products in a large number of different countries compared to smaller local businesses and thereby dominate developing countries.
3) International Restrictions and Trading Blocks
Unlike domestic marketing, international marketing is not entirely free from restrictions and barriers because of the protective policies followed by different countries. Unlike domestic marketing, international marketing is not entirely free from restrictions and barriers because of the protective policies followed by different countries. These restrictions come in the form of tariffs and non-tariff barriers which are implemented almost by all countries to protect their interests. Foreign exchange regulations are also imposed by many countries to put restrictions on imports and exports. Additionally, various trading blocs such as CMEA, ASEAN, and LAFTA also restrict the scope of international marketing. These blocs impose artificial barriers on the free movement of goods and services among the countries.
4) Sensitive Character
International marketing is a dynamic and adaptable field that requires sensitivity and flexibility. The success of a product can be impacted by many factors such as political and economic changes, sudden shifts in consumer preferences, advancements in technology by competitors, etc. Even the use of advanced technology or the introduction of new products by competitors can impact sales significantly. Therefore, international marketers need to stay informed and agile to capitalize on opportunities and navigate these challenges
5) Need for Marketing Research
Market research is used by companies to gather data and to learn more about the target audience so that the businesses can market themselves more effectively and ultimately, succeed in the market. It is required in international marketing due to several reasons such as marketing surveys, for making informed decisions about product development, pricing strategies, promotional activities, product surveys and product testing.
6) Importance of Advanced Technology
With the use of advanced machinery and tools production and marketing of goods have improved. Companies are now able to promote, export and capture the world market. Which makes the companies sell superior quality goods at competitive prices. Keeping the employees more focused on work and tracking the manufacturing processes has become easier with the developments in technological inventions. The accessibility of technological advancements such as social media, e-commerce sites or even virtual events has made it possible to advertise products or services globally without a physical presence in the market.
7) Intense competition
Intense competition in international marketing is a common rivalry between companies selling similar goods or services to increase revenue, profit and market share. The nature of the competition in international marketing varies across countries, depending on factors such as cultural differences, economic conditions, and regulatory frameworks.
8) Need for Specialised Institutions
International marketing is risky and complicated and involves lengthy procedures and formalities. Access to professional experts is essential so that they can guide various aspects of international marketing. Similarly, financial support is also necessary. Specialized institutions such as indent houses, exchange banks, and export houses have been established across the world to facilitate effective participation in international marketing.
9) Need for Long-Term Planning
International marketing requires long-term planning. It is often influenced by many social, economic, and political environment factors. Companies need to engage in long-term planning to ensure success in this field. A comprehensive and dynamic marketing programme can be prepared through such planning.
10) Develops Cultural Relations and Maintains World Peace
International marketing plays an important role in promoting cultural relations and world peace. It brings different countries closer together and develops cultural relations among them by facilitating the exchange of ideas, values, and traditions, ultimately leading to a better understanding and appreciation of diverse cultures. This, in turn, improves the quality of life for people in foreign countries, as they are exposed to new perspectives and ways of thinking.
Scope of International Marketing
The scope of international marketing is explained as follows:
1) Exporting – Selling to foreign markets
Exporting is the business strategy of selling goods and services to foreign markets. Whether the company is small or big exporting can always be a valuable strategy for achieving long-term growth and success. The exporter performs many activities, other than exporting goods and services. These activities include:
Setting up a branch in a foreign market for processing, packaging or assembling goods as per the market’s needs can be a strategic move for businesses that are looking to expand their reach and meet the specific needs of the market. It involves processing, packaging, and assembling of goods to meet the demands of local consumers.
ii) Joint Ventures and Collaborations
Joint Ventures and Collaborations involve the establishment of partnerships between foreign countries and MNCs for the manufacturing and marketing of products and services. Through joint ventures and collaborations, companies can collaborate with foreign firms to effectively penetrate international markets.
iii) Licensing Arrangements
The Company, under this system of businesses, establishes licensing arrangements with the foreign term whereby foreign enterprises are granted the right to use the exporting company’s know-how, viz., patents, processes or trademarks according to the terms of the agreement with or without financial investment.
iv) Consultancy Services
Consulting services are offered by specialized professionals from export companies who share their expertise and experience with businesses seeking to address specific challenges or achieve goals. Export companies provide consultancy services by undertaking turnkey projects abroad.
v) Technical and Managerial Expertise
International marketing involves the exchange of goods and services between countries as well as the transfer of technical and managerial knowledge from the exporting company to the importing company. The technicians and managerial personnel of the exporting companies guide and train the technicians and managers of the importing companies. To ensure that the importing company is equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to effectively use the products or services being imported, leading to a successful business relationship between the two companies.
2) Importing – Purchasing from foreign markets
Import refers to the act of buying goods or services from a foreign country for commercial purposes. However, in specific cases, national accounts give effect to changes in ownership even when there is no change in ownership in legal terms (for example, cross-border financial leases, cross-border distributions between associates of the same enterprise, significant ordering or repairing cross-border goods for processing). Also smuggled goods should be included in the import measure.
Import of services includes all services provided by non-residents to residents. In national accounts, any direct purchases made by residents outside a country’s economic zone are recorded as imports of services; Therefore all expenditure incurred by tourists in the economic zone of another country is considered as part of the import of services. International flows of illegal services should also be included.
Re-exporting refers to the process of import of semi-finished goods and subsequent export of final goods. It involves re-engineering commodities for export purposes. This practice is commonly used by businesses seeking to optimize their supply chain and reduce costs. By importing semi-finished goods and adding value through further processing or assembly, companies can make higher-quality products at lower costs.
4) Management of International Operations
i) Operating marketing and sales facilities abroad.
ii) Establishing production or assembly facilities in foreign nations.
iii) Organization and formation of trade block and settlement of external payment.
iv) Creating licensing and joint venture arrangements.
v) Offering management contracts (consultancy) and undertaking turnkey projects abroad.
vi) Foreign Exchange Arrangement and Management.
vii) Understanding country-wise and commodity-wise tonnes of marketing- by case to case.
viii) Monitoring the operation of marketing practices of multinationals and other agencies. Development of e-marketing.
ix) Promotional and development role of agencies engaged in marketing practices.
x) National global policies for international marketing.
Thus, the scope of international marketing is not static but fully dynamic; it depends upon global level changes, national level changes, policy level changes and organisational level changes. International marketing dynamism differs from country to country trade block-to-block and company-to-company.
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