Table of Contents:-
- Meaning of Communication
- Definition of Communication
- Purpose of Communication
- Process of Communication
Meaning of Communication
Communication is derived from the Latin word “communicare “, which means to share, participate, impart, convey, make ordinary, or transmit.
Communication is sending, receiving and sharing ideas, attitudes, values, opinions, and facts. In other words, communication is the process through which two or more individuals exchange ideas and knowledge. Thus, communication may be interpreted as exchanging information or thoughts to bring awareness and confidence to good industrial relations. It brings unity of interest, purpose, and effort in an organisation.
Definition of Communication
According to Newman and Summer, “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”.
Keith Davis states, “Communications is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another”.
According to the American Management Association, “Communication is any behaviour that results in an exchange of meaning”.
Peter Little states, “Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organisations so that an understanding response results”.
According to Louis A. Allen, “Communication is the sum total of all the things that a person does, when he wants to create an understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding”.
Purpose of Communication
The Main Purposes of communication are as follows:
1) To Give and Receive Information
In an organisation, the management uses communication to keep the employees well-informed about the organisational policies, goals, and practices. Meetings, telephone, notices, employee handbooks, and bulletins convey necessary information to employees. Similarly, an organisation communicates with outsiders (investors, customers, suppliers, government, public, etc.) to inform them about its plans and contributions. The information may be provided or received orally or in writing.
2) To Convey the Right Message
An objective of communication is to convey the right message to the right person, i.e., to the person for whom it is meant. And the person should also understand the message.
3) To Provide Advice
Advice may be given on official or personal matters. In business, supervisors advise workers in handling machines and equipment in a factory or office. Managers need expert advice on taxation, project finance, quality control, engineering, etc.
4) To Receive Suggestions
Employees and customers are a valuable source of new ideas for a business as they are in direct touch with operations and banking procedures. Suggestions flow upwards as feedback and represent mild and subtle communication.
5) Persuade People
Persuasion is the art of influencing people’s attitudes, opinions and actions. It is an essential communication objective, requiring the ability to speak and write effectively. Persuasion is compelling when face-to-face conversation is used with tact.
6) To Motivate People
Motivation is the driving force through which human beings achieve their goals. Motivation is inducing people to work hard to achieve organisational goals. An atmosphere of security, cooperation, and trust is essential for this purpose. Communication is a very effective means of building a friendly and trustful environment.
7) To Provide Counselling
Counselling is an organised and specialised activity requiring professional expertise and an objective approach. Employees’ morale and efficiency tend to decline when they face personal or family problems.
8) To Issue Orders and Instructions
A manager issues orders and instructions to his subordinates to get things done. A charge is a directive to do something, whereas an education indicates how to carry out the order. The order involves the assignment of tasks, while instruction specifies how the study is to be performed.
Process of Communication
Communication is a two-way process in which there is an exchange and progression of ideas toward a mutually acceptable direction or goal. The method of communication involves two or more persons participating through a medium that carries the information or message for a particular purpose, which both the sender and the receiver mutually understand.
The process of communication is explained below:
The sender or the source is the originator of the idea or the message. It may also be known as the sender, an individual, or a group, i.e., an individual who might act on behalf of a group. The source conceives the idea, prepares the message, selects the channel, and decides about the receiver.
The message refers to the stimulus the source transmits to the receiver. Messages are composed of symbols specific to the head and the receiver. News could be verbal (written or spoken) or nonverbal (such as appearance, body language, silence, sounds, signs, etc.).
It is the process by which the message is translated from an idea or can be transmitted. While encoding a message, one must consider what contents the receiver will interpret and how it may affect one’s relationship.
The channel is a means through which the message travels from the source to the receiver. The track may be mass media (not meant for any particular individual), such as newspapers, radio, TV, etc, or interpersonal (meant for a specific individual), such as telephone, correspondence, etc. Selection of the channel or medium (written or oral) depends upon the message to be conveyed, the importance of the news, the number of receivers, the channel’s availability, the channel’s cost, the track, the effectiveness of the channel, etc.
The receiver is the targeted audience of the message. The receiver gets the message, understands, interprets it, and then tries to perceive the total meaning of the message as transmitted by the sender. He receives an encoded message, which he tries to decode.
It is the process by which the receiver decodes the meaning of the message. The receiver uses knowledge and experience to interpret the news symbols; in some situations, they may consult an authority such as a dictionary or a code book. Up to this point, the receiver has been relatively inactive but becomes more active in the decoding phase. The meaning the receiver attaches to the symbols may be the same or different from the purpose intended by the source. If the definitions differ, communication breaks down, and misunderstanding is likely.
Ultimately, the receiver answers or reacts to the message sent by the sender. The response could be based on the straightforward interpretation of the message sent, or it could be based on misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the message sent. Whatever the receiver’s response to a sender is, it is called feedback.
Noise is any type of disturbance in the communication process that interferes with or distorts communication. Noise can be introduced at almost any point in the communication process. The principal type, named channel noise, is associated with the medium. Radio static and “ghost” images on television are examples of channel noise, as is an e-mail virus. When noise interferes with the encoding and decoding processes, poor encoding and decoding can result.