Methods of Recruitment
Recruitment is a fundamental process for organizations that seek to attract and secure the best talent. The methods of recruitment used by companies play an important role in shaping their workforce and ultimately influencing their success. By understanding these methods, organizations can make informed decisions and optimize their recruitment strategies to successfully attract top talent.
Various methods of recruitment can be categorized into two main types: traditional and modern which are as follows:
1) Traditional Methods of Recruitment
Despite the fiercely competitive nature of recruiting, many employers still use traditional recruitment sources, at least initially. Some of these are reactive. Various traditional methods of recruitment are as follows:
The ads generally give a brief outline of the compensation package, job responsibilities, prospects in the organisation, etc. This method is appropriate when the organisation intends to reach a large target group and wants a fairly good number of talented people who are geographically spread out.
ii) Radio and Television
Radio and television are used to reach certain types of job applicants such as skilled workers, Radio and television are used but sparingly, and that too, by government departments only. Companies in the private sector are uncertain about using the media because of high costs and also because they fear that such advertisements will make the companies look desperate and damage their conservative image.
iii) Transfer and Promotions
This is a method of filling vacancies from within through transfers and promotions. A transfer is an internal movement within the same grade, from one job to another. It may lead to changes in duties and responsibilities, working conditions, etc., but not necessarily salary Promotion, on the other hand, involves the movement of an employee from a lower-level position to a higher-level position accompanied by (usually) changes in responsibilities, duties, status and value.
iv) Former Employees
Former employees are rapidly becoming a viable recruitment source as employers increasingly contact former employees, striving to convert former employees into new hires.
v) Previous Applicants
Although not entirely an internal source, those who have previously applied for jobs can be re-contacted by mail, a quick and inexpensive way to fill an unexpected opening Applicants who have just “walked in” and applied may be considered also. These previous walk-ins are likely to be more suitable for filling unskilled and semi-skilled jobs, but some professional openings can be filled by turning to such applications. One company that needed three cost accountants immediately contacted qualified previous applicants and was able to hire three people who were disappointed with their present jobs at other companies.
vi) Job Posting
Job posting is an internal method of recruitment in which notices of available jobs are posted in central locations throughout the organisation and employees are given a fixed time to apply for the available jobs.
vii) Campus Recruitment
This method involves visiting college campuses and actively engaging with their placement centres as a way of recruiting prospective talent. Here the recruiters visit reputed educational institutions such as IIT, IIM, and various other colleges and universities to pick up job aspirants having requisite technical or professional skills. The companies will benefit from getting a wide range of suitable candidates to select for different job posts. Companies can efficiently choose talented candidates from a large pool of young applicants in a short amount of time.
This is one of the oldest methods. In this method, the personnel department sends their representatives to potential places of recruitment and establishes contact with potential recruitment locations, where they make contact with job-seeking candidates. Initial screening and interviews are conducted at these selected venues, where candidates present themselves. In this effort, local/consultant agents/institutions/colleges play the liaison work. Organising conventions, indoctrination seminars, fairs, etc, are other means of this method.
ix) Professional Associations
Professional associations/bodies of major professionals like Doctors, Engineers, Auditors, Chartered Accountants, and Managers also provide ample opportunity to locate potential candidates for technical, scientific and managerial cadre vacancies.
x) Employee Referrals
Employee referral is the practice of tapping into personal connections to discover job opportunities. It involves a current employee recommending a job applicant, who may be a friend or a family member. The idea behind employee referral is that those who work in a company often have a good sense of who would be a suitable fit for the organization. This method of recruitment, however, suffers from a serious defect in that it encourages nepotism, i.e., persons of one’s community or caste are employed, who may or may not be fit for the job.
xi) Employees Trade Associations/Clubs
Meetings, conferences, seminars, and other social functions of employee trade associations/clubs are yet another means of locating suitable hands.
xii) Private Employment Agencies
Private Employment Agencies are the most widely used. They charge a small amount of fee from an applicant. They specialise in specific occupations such as general office help, salesmen, technical workers, accountants, computer staff, engineers and executives. These private agencies act as intermediaries, connecting employers and employees.
xiii) Schools, Colleges and Professional Institutions
They offer opportunities for recruiting their students. These general and technical/professional institutions provide blue-collar applicants and white-collar and managerial personnel.
xiv) State or Public Employment
Also known as Employment or Labour Exchanges are the main agencies of public employment. They serve as a hub for job listings and employment-related information. These agencies provide a wide range of services, assistance in getting jobs, information about the labour market, and labour and wage rates.
xv) Recruitment at the Factory Gate
This method involves direct recruitment by placing a notice at the factory gate, specifying the details of the jobs available.
xvi) Professional Organisations or Recruiting Firms or Executive Recruiters
They maintain complete information records about employed executives. These consulting firms recommend persons of high calibre for marketing, managerial, and production engineer posts.
Trade unions provide both manual and skilled workers in sufficient numbers. In some organisations, there are formal agreements to give priority to the recruitment of candidates recommended by the trade union
xviii) Computer Data Banks
When a company desires a particular type of employee, it inputs job specifications and requirements into a computer, which then matches them against the resume data it has stored.
xix) Unconsolidated Applications
For positions in which large numbers of candidates are not available from other sources, the companies may gain in keeping files of applications received from candidates who inquire about potential job openings independently or submit unsolicited applications.
xx) Voluntary Organisations
Voluntary organisations such as private clubs, and social organisations, might also provide employees – handicapped, widowed or married women, old persons, retired hands, etc., in response to advertisements.
2) Modern or Scientific Recruitment
Methods are a new-age solution designed to overcome problems in traditional recruitment methods like demand prediction, and critical skill-set supply. This method is used when there is no or less output by traditional methods. Modern sources of recruitment are the sources that can be used in a limited work atmosphere.
The modern methods of recruitment allow digging deeply into the job market, and it allows finding the people, who are active in the online communities. It offers the opportunity to compose the recruitment shortlist without contacting the people directly. They are keenly focused on targeting the right people at the right time. However, they need some effort from the HR recruiter as well.
Various modern or scientific methods of recruitment are as follows:
i) Social Media
Most young professionals use Facebook and Twitter more commonly than they read the newspaper. Facebook and Twitter are used for everything from news to family updates. Even sport recruiters have used Facebook and Twitter for scouting. Companies can maximise the benefit of social media and other e-recruiting strategies by ensuring that they engage with their customers, employees and job candidates through these channels.
ii) Smart Phones
Smartphones have access to countless applications and virtually any web page Job candidates all over the world are glued to their phones. Companies interact in their space by optimising their career portals, providing ample information about the company online, and even leveraging old phone features like SMS for recruiting.
iii) Electronic Recruiting
Electronic Recruiting is also known as e-recruiting/web-based/internet recruitment. It makes use of technology to assist the recruitment process. It is among the fastest-growing recruitment methods. Internet recruiting can be extremely effective in generating applicants due to its low cost, speed, and ability to target applicants with technical skills.
iv) Billboard Advertising
It is usually limited to an enlarged logo with a company name, a statement about employment advantages, available jobs and a phone number. It helps in providing a limited amount of information so that the average driver can easily understand and retain the information provided. For example, hotels, restaurants, and airlines.
v) Air Display
It includes new methods of displaying vacancies in the organisation through air balloons or banners displayed by aeroplanes.
vi) On-Site Recruitment
This type of method is opted for by businesses that require a large workforce or who require people every day. Companies use pamphlets on which there is information about the job and advantages for the employees and the contact number of the company official. Interested candidates are requested to call.
vii) Glow, Sign Boards,
Many companies use glow sign boards for displaying jobs and vacancies. Glow sign boards can be easily viewed at night while driving.
Kiosks are seen at malls, airports, or in large stores. Kiosks can contain marketing and branding messages and engage users with voice, video and interactive exercises such as aptitude tests. It looks like a video game. They can collect candidate information and integrate it with the talent pools. When a candidate applies for work and passes whatever skills and aptitude tests the organisation administers via the kiosk, a manager is alerted (by the system, using e-mail) and meets the candidate right then and there. An interview and offer can often be made on the spot. The kiosk is interactive both online and offline. If the message compels a candidate to seek more information, they can pick up the attached phone and speak to the recruiter directly.
Most companies use stickers for the display of vacancies. Generally, there is the post name and the phone number of the company. These are stuck on cars and walls.
x) Response Cards
These are pre-designed cards given by the company to the people interested in the job opening. These cards are sent by e-mail to the targeted applicants. Those cards contain information about the job and a questionnaire to be filled by the applicants. After filling out the questionnaire, the applicants are requested to send these cards back to the company through e-mail. By this, the company get detailed information about the candidate and his or her interest in the job.
xi) Conversion of Clients as Employees
Most companies have opted for this technique of recruitment. Now companies give job offers to their respective clients and ask them to be an employee of their firm. Regular customers generally know the product chain of the company. So it is less painful for the company to give product knowledge to the clients or their new employees.
xii) Cultural or Social Events
Nowadays there is a great participation of companies in social and cultural events. In the event, there is a stall of the particular company which has the brochures containing information about the job and profile.