Table of Contents:-
- Meaning of Training
- Definition of Training
- Objectives of Training
- Process of Training
Meaning of Training
Training is a specialised function and is one of the fundamental operative functions of human resource management. It is a short-term process utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which non-managerial personnel acquire technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Training is a process of acquiring a sequence of programmed behaviours through learning. It is the application of knowledge and gives people an awareness of rules and procedures to guide their behaviour. It helps in bringing about a positive charge in the knowledge, skills, and attitude of employees towards the requirements of the job and organization. Thus, it bridges the differences between job requirements and employee’s present specifications.
Definition of Training
According to H. John Bernardin, “Training is any attempt to improve employee performance on a currently held job or one related to it”.
According to Dale S. Beach, “Training is the organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and/or skill for a definite purpose”.
According to Planty, Cord and Efferson, “Training is the continuous, systematic development among all levels of employees of that knowledge and their skills and attitude which contribute to their welfare and that of the company”.
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Training is an act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job”.
Objectives of Training
Objectives of training are as follows:
1) Enhancing Employee Performance
Imparting new skills helps in the performance enhancement of the employees assigned specific tasks. Training helps to bridge the gap between actual performance and the expected performance of an employee.
2) Updating Employee Skills
In the changing environment, technological changes are taking place at a faster rate. Organisations must keep track of the speed and direction of changes. It is the organizational and moral responsibility of management to ensure that employees are equipped with the knowledge and skills required to adapt to technological changes. Training systems enable employees to update their abilities and integrate technological changes successfully into organisational systems and processes.
3) Avoiding or Delaying Managerial Obsolescence
A manager’s inability to cope with technological advancements is referred to as managerial obsolescence, as it is the management’s failure to adopt new methods and processes. The obsolescence, in turn, retards organisational pe formance. Therefore, training is aimed at avoiding managerial obsolescence.
4) Preparing for Promotion and Managerial Success:
An employee acquires new skills in a training programme, and so can a manager. He/she takes on challenging tasks and does not hesitate to accept higher responsibilities. Training makes the transition of the employee from the present job to the next job faster, easier, and smoother.
5) Motivating and Preventing Employee Attrition
Employees need continuous development to move along the career path as per the career planning. Training motivates and reinstates organisational commitment. Managers must provide adequate training facilities to all employees, particularly to those who show promise.
6) Gaining Organisational Excellence
Knowledge, skill, and motivation are the dominant determinants of human performance. A trained person requires less time and attention from the supervisor, as training enables them to be self-propelled. Thus, training substantially saves the time of supervisors. Training, additionally, reduces accident rates, break-down of machines and facilities, rejections and wastes, and enhances labour and material productivity. These factors improve organisational stability by creating a reservoir of a knowledgeable and skilled workforce who can help an organisation sustain its competitive edge and advantages.
Process of Training
The training process consists of various steps, which are shown in the image:
1) Assessment of Organisational Objectives and Strategies
The first step in the training process in an organisation is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. At what level of quality do we wish to provide this service or product? What kind of business are we in? Where do we want to be in future? It is only after answering these and other related questions that the organisation must assess the weaknesses and strengths of its human resources.
2) Assessment of Training Needs
Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through development and training. Organisations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage of turnover) on training and development. Before committing such huge resources, organisations should assess the training needs of their employees.
3) Establishment of Training Goals
Once training needs are assessed, training and development goals must be established. Without clearly defined goals, it is not possible to design a training and development program. Moreover, after its implementation, there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness. Goals must be tangible, verifiable, and measurable. This is easy where skills training is involved. For example, the successful trainee will be expected to type 60 words per minute with two or more errors per page. However, behavioural objectives like attitudinal changes can be more difficult to state. Nevertheless, clear behavioral standards and expected results are necessary so that the program can be effectively designed, and results can be evaluated.
4) Designing Training and Development Programme
The actual program design is the foundation for effective training and development. Without relevant and trustworthy content, training and development efforts are pointless. The usual approach to content development starts with outlining programme content and then expanding that outline into fully formed programmes. Selecting the most appropriate instructors completes the process. Thus, several issues are involved in designing training programmes.
5) Implementation of Training Programme
Once the training programme has been designed, it needs to be implemented. Implementation is beset with certain problems. In the first place, most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts, Secondly, the availability of trainers is a problem in addition to possessing communication skills, the trainers must know the company’s philosophy, its objectives, its formal organisation and informal organisation, the lines of the training programme. Training and development require a higher degree of creativity the moderate any other personnel speciality.
Programme implementation involves action along the following lines:
- i) Deciding the location and organising training and other facilities
- ii) Scheduling the training programme.
- iii) Conducting the programme.
- iv) Monitoring the progress of trainees.
6) Evaluation of Results
The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results. Given the substantial amount of money spent on training and development, it is essential to assess the effectiveness of the program. Evaluation helps to determine the results of the training and development programme. In practice, however, organisations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation.